Style Manuals

Style Manuals

1. Manuscripts:

Text (12 pt) and footnotes (10 pt) should not be formatted. This means: no hyphenation and justification, no tab stops or spaces at the beginning of a paragraph.

For English manuscripts: please use American English style (examples: catalog, center, color, behavior, story etc., as well as the placement of commas and full stops INSIDE quotation marks).

2. Footnotes:

Superscripts for footnotes should be used and should always be placed after punctuation marks (without space). For inserting footnotes, please use a word processing system which carries out the notes automatically. Do not insert superscripts mechanically.

The notes should follow the body of the text of every page as a separate unit (10 pt).

Each footnote should start with a capital letter, end with a full stop, and must be complete in itself showing full references.

3. Abbreviations:

Please, try to avoid abbreviations in the text. When used, however, common abbreviations must be applied in a consistent manner.

Do not abbreviate the following: century, names of museums and collections, journals and other publications.

In the notes, please use the following abbreviations:

col. = column; cols = columns; e.g. = exempli gratia; ed. = editor; eds = editors; et al. = et alteri/alii; etc. = et cetera; fig. = figure; figs = figures; fol. = folio; no. = number; p. = page; pp. = pages; p. = part; pl. = plate; pls = plates; vol. = volume; vols = volumes.

4. References and quotes:

a. Quoting from books:

If quoting from books, first give the name of the author (sequence: first name surname) followed by a comma, then the book title in italic script followed by a comma, then the edition (in Arabic numerals) followed by a comma, then the volume number (in Arabic numerals) followed by a comma, the place and year of publication followed by a comma, and finally the page or column, followed by a full stop.


Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences in Western ArtNew York 1972.

Wolfgang Kemp, The desire of my eyes: the life and work of John RuskinNew York 1990.

Egon Verheyen, The Palazzo del Te in Mantua. Images of Love and PoliticsBaltimore and London 1977.

Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting: its Origins and Character, 2 vols, CambridgeMass. 1953.

Elizabeth Cumming, and Wendy Kaplan, Arts & crafts movementLondon 1991.

If quoting a single book or article more than once, you can refer to a previous note in the following manner: Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, pp. 134–136.

b. Quoting from journals:

If quoting from journals, first give the name of the author (sequence: first name surname), then the title of the article followed by a comma all in quotation marks, then “in” followed by a colon, the name of the journal, the volume, the year and the page number(s), followed by a full stop.

First name surname – comma – title of article– comma – in: title of journal – volume – comma – year – comma – p./pp. – page number(s)


Frank Zöllner, “The Motions of the Mind in Renaissance Portraits: The Spiritual Dimension of Portraiture, in: Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 68, 2005, pp. 23–40.

Nicolai Rubinstein, Classical Themes in the Decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 50, 1987, pp. 29–43.

Use Arabic numbers, no Roman numerals for volumes.

Use p. for 1 page and pp. for several pages.

Quotes from collective volumes are to be given in the same way.

No bibliographical indications in the text. They should be given in the notes.

Quotations in the text should be put in quotations marks (do not use italics). Comma or full stop end of quotation before quotation mark, other punctuation marks (e.g. semicolon, question mark etc.) THAT DO NOT BELONG TO THE QUOTATION should be after the quotation mark.


… “an eminent, epoch-making work of art,” as he calls it, …

 “[…] a happy turn of events […] joining in on pastoral songs.”1

Omitted text passages should be indicated with three full stops in square brackets: […].

Do not use parentheses except for indications of figures (fig. 1, 2, 3 etc.), dates behind the names of historical figures, for example: Pope Pius II (1458–64), or homophones behind the names of historical figures, for example: Pope Pius II (教宗庇護二世)(1458–64).

5. Expressions in foreign language:

Single expressions and specialist terms in foreign language should be put in italics (examples: œuvredisegnoall’antica,villeggiatura, virtuslocus amoenus).

6. Indications of works of art in the text:

Works of art, named in the text, should be put in italics.


Raphael’s Saint Cecilia in Bologna (fig. 6), a painting he already knew from etchings, becomes now one of his favorite pieces.

7. Measurements:

When giving the measurements of pictures, indicate height before width; please use cms and for smaller objects mms.

8. Indications of figures and color plates:

Within the text in brackets as follows: (fig. 00) for black and white figures in the text; (pl. 00) for color plates.

Punctuation mark always follows the brackets.


…, as can be noted in the earlier portrait (fig. 4).

9. Figures/captions:

Illustration headings (captions) should be as short as possible using the following punctuation and providing the following information:


artist (or school) – comma – title of work – comma – date – comma – technique–– comma – measurement – comma – collection – inv.-number (if known) comma– location (no full stop at the end!)


Paul Delaroche, The Assassination of the Duc de Guise, 1834, oil on canvas, 56 × 98 cm, Musée Condé, Chantilly

Giorgione da Castelfranco, La Tempesta, egg tempera and walnut oil on canvas, 82 × 73 cm, Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice, inv. no. 915

Leonardo da Vinci, Bridge designs in wood, pen and ink, 23.5 × 17 cm, Institut de France, Paris, Cod. B, fol. 23r

Andrea Palladio, Project for the Casa Civena, c. 1541-42, pen, ink, and wash over incised lines and chalk underdrawing, 32.3 × 23.1 cm, Royal Institute of British Architects, London, RIBA XVII/14


relevant part of monument – comma – title of monument – comma – location – comma – date



Façade, Upper story, Santa Maria Novella, Florence

View of façade, San Sebastiano, Mantua

Sant’AndreaMantua, Plan


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